(Some papers here are available in electronic format and can be downloaded by clicking the year of publication. For other papers including preprints, you may request them by email me.)
Qin, C., S.J. Zhong, and R. Phillips, Formation of the lunar fossil bulges and its implication for the early Earth and Moon, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL076278, 2018
Li, M.M., S.J. Zhong, and P. Olson, Linking lowermost mantle structure, core-mantle boundary heat flux and mantle plume formation, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pepi.2018.01.010, 2018.
Bellas, A., S.J. Zhong, D. Bercovici, and E. Mulyukova, Dynamic weakening with grain-damage and implications for slab detachment, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., in review, 2018.
Li, M.M., and S.J. Zhong, The source location of mantle plumes from 3D spherical models of mantle convection, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 478, 47-57, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2017.08.033, 2017.
Li, M.M., B. Black, S.J. Zhong, M. Manga, M.L. Rudolph, P. Olson, Quantifying melt production and degassing rate at mid-ocean ridges from global mantle convection models with plate motion history, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 17, 2884-2904, doi:10.1002/2016GC006439, 2016.
Qin, C., S.J. Zhong, J. Wahr, Elastic tidal response of a laterally heterogeneous planet: a complete perturbation formulation, Geophy. J. Int., Geophys. J. Int. 207, 89-110, doi:10.1093/gji/ggw257, 2016.
Liu, X., and S.J. Zhong, Constraining mantle viscosity structure for a thermochemical mantle using the geoid observation, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 17, 895-913, doi:10.1002/2015GC006161, 2016.
Wang, Y.M., J.S. Huang, S.J. Zhong, and J.M. Chen, Heat flux and topography constraints on thermochemical structure below North China craton regions and implications for evolution of cratoic lithosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 121, 3081-3098, doi:10.1002/2015JB012540, 2016.
Zhong, S.J., and X. Liu, The long-wavelength mantle structure and dynamics and their implications for large-scale tectonics and volcanism in the Phanerozoic, Gondwana Res., 29, 83-104, 10.1016/j.gr.2015.07.007, 2016.
Liu, X., and S.J. Zhong, The long-wavelength geoid from 3-dimensional spherical models of thermal and thermo-chemical mantle convection, J. Geophys. Res., 120, doi:10.1002/2015JB012016, 2015.
Zhong, S.J., and M. L. Rudolph, On the temporal evolution of long-wavelength mantle structure of the Earth mantle since the Early Paleozoic, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 16, 1599-1615, doc10.1002/2015GC005782, 2015.
Wang, Y.M., J.S. Huang, and S.J. Zhong, Episodic and multistaged gravitational instability of cratonic lithosphere and its implications for reactivation of the North China Craton, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 16, 815-833, doi:10.1002/2014GC005681, 2015.
Olson, P., R. Deguen, M.L. Rudolph and S.J. Zhong, Core evolution driven by mantle global circulation, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 243, 44-55, 2015.
Qin, C., S.J. Zhong, and J. Wahr, A perturbation method and its application: elastic tidal response of a laterally heterogeneous planet, Geophys. J. Int., 199, 631-647, 2014.
Rudolph, M.L. and S.J. Zhong, History and dynamics of net rotation of the mantle and lithosphere, G^3, 15, doi:10.1002/2014GC005457, 2014.
A, Geruo, J. Wahr and S.J. Zhong, The effects of laterally varying icy shell structure on the tidal response of Ganymede and Europe, J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 119, 659-678, doi:10.1002/2013JE004570, 2014,
Carlson, R.W., E. Garnero, T.M. Harrison, J. Li, M. Manga, W.F. McDonough, S. Mukhopadlhyay, B. Romanowicz, D. Rubie, Q. Williams, S.J. Zhong, How did early Earth become our modern world? Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 42, 151-178, 10.1146/annurev-earth-060313-055016,2014.
Scheinberg, A., L.T. Elkins-Tanton, and S.J. Zhong, Timescale and morphology of Martian mantle overturn immediately following magma ocean solidification, J. Geophys. Res.-Planets, 119, doi:10.1002/2013JE004496, 2014.
Zhong, S.J., and A.B. Watts, Lithospheric deformation induced by loading of the Hawaiian Islands and its implications for mantle rheology, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 6025-6048, doi:10.1002/2013JB010408, 2013.
Rudolph M. L. and S.J. Zhong, Quadrupole stability implies LLSVP fixity? (A Brief Communication), Nature, vol 503, doi:10.1038/nature12792, 2013.
Liu, X. and S.J. Zhong, Analysis of marginal stability, heat transfer and boundary layer propoerties for thermal convection in a compressible fluid, Geophys. J. Int, 194, 125-144, 2013.
Watts, A.B., S.J. Zhong, J. Hunter, The behavior of the lithosphere on seismic to geologic time-scales, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 41, 443-468, 2013.
A, G.R., J. Wahr, and S.J. Zhong, Computations of the viscoelastic response of a 3-D compressible Earth to surface loading: an application to glacial isostatic adjustment in Antartica and Canada, Geophys. J. Int., 192, 557-572, 2013.
Huang, J.H., A. Yang, and S.J. Zhong, Constraints of the topography, gravity and volcanism on Venusian mantle dynamics and generation of plate tectonics, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 362, 207-214, 2013.
Sramek, O., W.F. McDonough, E.S. Kite, V. Lekic, S.T. Dye, and S.J. Zhong, Geophysical and geochemical constraints on geoneutrino fluxes from Earth's mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 361, 356-366, 2013.
Olson, P., R. Deguen, L. A. Hinnov, and S.J. Zhong, Controls on geomagnetic reversals and core evolution by mantle convection in the Phanerozoic, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 214, 87-103, 2013.
Citron, R.I. and S.J. Zhong, Constraints on the formation of the Martian crustal dichotomy from remnant crustal magnetism, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 212-213, 55-63, doi:10.1016/j.pepi.2012.09.008, 2012.
Zhong, S.J., C. Qin, G.R. A, and J. Wahr, Can tidal tomography be used to unravel the long-wavelength structure of the lunar interior? Geophys. Res. Lett. vol 39, L15201, doi:10.1029/2012GL052362, 2012
Qin, C., A.C. Muirhead, and S.J. Zhong, Correlation of deep moonquakes and mare basalts: Implications for lunar mantle evolution, Icarus, 220, 100-105, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2012.04.023, 2012
Zhang, N., S.J. Zhong, and R.M. Flowers, Predicting and testing continental motion histories since the Paleozoic, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 317-318, 426-435, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.10.041, 2012.
Flowers, R.M., A.K. Ault, S.A. Kelley, N. Zhang, and S.J. Zhong, Epeirogeny or eustasy? Paleozoic–Mesozoic vertical motion of the North American continental interior from thermochronometry and implications for mantle dynamics, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 317-318, 436-445, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.11.015, 2012.
Sramek, O., and S.J. Zhong, Martian crustal dichotomy formation Tharsis formation by partial melting coupled to early plume migration, J. Geophys. Res.-Planets, 117, E01005, doi:10.1029/2011JE003867, 2012.
Hynek, B.M., S.J. Robbins, O. Sramek, and S.J. Zhong, Geological evidence for a migrating Tharsis plume on early Mars, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 310, 327-333, 2011.
Tan, E., W. Leng, S.J. Zhong, and M. Gurnis, On the location of plumes and lateral movement of thermo-chemical structures with high bulk modulus in the 3-D compressible mantle, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 12, Q07005, doi:10.1029/2011GC003665, 2011
Zhang, N. and S.J. Zhong, Heat fluxes at the Earth's surface and core-mantle boundary since Pangea formation and their implications for the geomagnetic superchrons, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 306, 205-216, 2011.
Leng, W., and S.J. Zhong, Implementation and application of adaptive mesh refinement for thermochemical mantle convection studies, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 12, Q04006, doi:10.1029/2010GC003425, 2011.
Jones, C.H., G.L. Farmer, B. Sageman, and S.J. Zhong, A hydodynamic mechanism for the Laramide orogeny, Geosphere, 7, 183-201, 2011.
Sramek, O., and S.J. Zhong, Long-wavelength stagnant-lid convection with hemispheric variation in lithospheric thickness: link between Martian crustal dichotomy and Tharsis? J. Geophys. Res.-Planets, 115, E09010, doi:10.1029/2010JE003597, 2010.
Leng, W. and S.J. Zhong, Constraints on viscous dissipation of plate
bending from compressible mantle convection, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 297, 154-164, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2010.06.016, 2010.
Harig, C., S.J. Zhong, and F.J. Simons, Constraints on upper-mantle viscosity inferred from the flow-induced pressure gradient across a continental keel, G^3, 11, Q06004, doi:10.1029/2010GC003038, 2010.
Leng, W. and S.J. Zhong, Surface subsidence caused by mantle plumes and volcanic loading in large igneous provinces, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 291, 207-214, 2010.
Zhang, N., S.J. Zhong, W. Leng, and Z.X. Li, A model for the evolution of the Earth's mantle structure since the Early Paleozoic, J. Geophys. Res., 115, B06401, doi:10.1029/2009JB006896, 2010.
Ghosh, A., T.W. Becker, and S.J. Zhong, Effects of lateral viscosity variations on the geoid, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L01301, doi:10.1029/2009GL040426, 2010.
T.M. Lassak, A.K. McNamara, E.J. Garnero, and S.J. Zhong, Core-mantle boundary topography as a possible constraint on lower mantle chemistry and dynamics, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 289, 232-241, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2009.11.012, 2010.
King, S.D., C.Y. Lee, P.E. van Keken, W. Leng, S.J. Zhong, E. Tan, N. Tosi, M.C. Kameyama, A community benchmark for 2D cartesian compressible convection in the Earth's mantle, Geophys. J. Int., 180, 73-87, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04413.x, 2010.
Z.X. Li and S.J. Zhong, Supercontinent-superplume coupling, true polar wander and plume mobility: plate dominance in whole-mantle tectonics? Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 176, 143-156, 2009.
N. Zhang, S.J. Zhong, and A. K. McNamara, Supercontinent formation from stochastic collision and mantle convection models, Gondwana Research, 15, 267-275, doi:10.1016/j.gr.2008.10.002, 2009.
W. Leng, and S.J. Zhong, More constraints on internal heating rate of the Earth's mantle from plume observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L02306, doi:10.1029/2008GL036449, 2009.
S.J. Zhong, Migration of Tharsis volcanism on Mars caused by differential rotation of lithosphere, Nature-Geoscience, 2, 19-23, DOI:10.1038/NGEO392, 2009.
Burstedde, C, O. Ghattas, M. Gurnis, G. Stadler, E. Tan, T. Tu, L. Wilcox, S. Zhong, Scalable parallel mantle convection simulation on petascale computers, Proceedings of the 2008 ACM/IEEE conference on Supercomputing, Austin, Texas, (ACM Gordon Bell finalists), doi:10.1109/SC.2008.5214248, 2008.
S.J. Zhong, A.K. McNamara, E. Tan, L. Moresi, and M. Gurnis, A benchmark study on mantle convection in a 3-D spherical shell using CitcomS, G^3, 9, Q10017, doi:10.1029/2008GC002048, 2008.
W. Leng, and S.J. Zhong, Viscous heating, adiabatic heating and energetic consistency in compressible mantle convection, Geophys. J. Int., 173, 693-702, 2008.
W. Leng, and S.J. Zhong, Controls on plume heat flux and plume excess temperature, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B04408, doi:10.1029/2007JB005155, 2008.
S.J. Zhong, D.A. Yuen, and L.N. Moresi, Numerical methods in mantle convection, in Treatise in Geophysics, edited by G. Schubert, vol 7 (editor: D. Bercovici), 227-252, 2007.
A. Paulson, S.J. Zhong, and J. Wahr, Inference of mantle viscosity from GRACE and relative sea level data, Geophys. J. Int., 171, 497-508, 2007.
T.M. Lassak, A.K. McNamara, and S.J. Zhong, Influence of thermochemical piles on topography at Earth's core-mantle boundary, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 261, 443-455, 2007.
S.J. Zhong, N. Zhang, Z.X. Li, and J.H. Roberts, Supercontinent cycles, true polar wander, and very long-wavelength mantle convection, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 261, 551-564, 2007.
J.H. Roberts, and S.J. Zhong, The cause for the north-south orientation of the crustal dichotomy and the equatorial location of Tharsis on Mars, Icarus, 190, 24-31, 2007.
S.J. Zhong, M. Ritzwoller, N. Shapiro, W. Landuyt, J. Huang, P. Wessel, Bathymetry of the Pacific Plate and its implications for thermal evolution of lithosphere and mantle dynamics, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B06412, doi:10.1029/2006JB004628, 2007.
A. Paulson, S.J. Zhong, and J. Wahr, Limitations on the inversion for mantle viscosity from post-glacial rebound,
Geophys. J. Int., 168, 1195-1209, 2007.
J. van Hunen and S.J. Zhong, The influence of rheology on realighment of mantle convective structure with plate motion after a plate re-organization, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 7, Q08008, doi:10.1029/2005GC001209, 2006.
J.H. Roberts, and S.J. Zhong, Degree-1 convection in the Martian mantle
and the origin of the hemispheric dichotomy,
J. Geophys. Res., 111, E06013, doi:10.1029/2005JE002668, 2006.
S.J. Zhong, Constraints on thermochemical convection of the mantle from plume heat flux, plume excess temperature and upper mantle temperature, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B04409, doi:10.1029/2005JB003972, 2006.
A. K. McNamara and S.J. Zhong, Thermochemical structures beneath Africa and the Pacific Ocean, Nature, 437, 1136-1139, 2005.
S.J. Zhong, Dynamics of Thermal Plumes in 3D Isoviscous Thermal Convection,
Geophys. J. Int., 162, 289-300, 2005.
van Hunen, J., S.J. Zhong, N. M. Shapiro, M.H. Ritzwoller, New evidence for dislocation creep from 3-D geodynamic modeling the Pacific upper mantle structure, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 238, 146-155, 2005.
A. Paulson, S.J. Zhong, and J. Wahr, Modeling post-glacial rebound with lateral viscosity variations,
Geophys. J. Int., 163, 357-371, 2005.
J. Huang and S.J. Zhong, Sublithospheric small-scale convection and its
implications for residual topography at old ocean basins and the plate model,
J. Geophys. Res., 110, B05404, 10.1029/2004JB003153, 2005.
A. K. McNamara, and S.J. Zhong, Degree-1 mantle convection: Dependence on internal heating and temperature-dependent rheology, GRL, 32, L01301, 10.1029/2004GL021082, 2005.
A. Barr, R. T. Pappalardo, and S.J. Zhong, Convective instability in
Ice I with non-Newtonian rheology: Application to the icy Galilean Satellites,
J. Geophys. Res., 109, E12008, doi:10.1029/2004JE002296, 2004.
Ritzwoller, M.H., N.M. Shapiro, and S.J. Zhong, Cooling history of the Pacific lithosphere,
Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 226, 69-84, 2004.
J.S. Huang and S.J. Zhong, Effects of sublithospheric small-scale convection
on seafloor topography and heat flux from Newtonian flow models,
Chinese Sci. Bull., vol 49, No. 21, 2311-2317, 2004.
A. K. McNamara, and S.J. Zhong, Thermochemical structures within a spherical mantle: Superplumes or piles? J. Geophys. Res., 109, B07402, doi:10.1029/2003JB002847, 2004.
A. K. McNamara, and S.J. Zhong, The influence of thermochemical convection on the fixity
of mantle plumes, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., vol 222, 485-500, 2004.
Podolefsky, N.S., S.J. Zhong, and A. K. McNamara, The anisotropic and rheological structure of the oceanic upper mantle from a simple model of plate shear,
Geophys. J. Int., 158, 287-296, 2004.
J. H. Roberts, and S.J. Zhong, Plume-induced topography and geoid anomalies and their implications for the Tharsis Rise on Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 109, Art. No. E03009, doi:10.1029/2003JE002226, 2004.
Zhong S.J., and J. H. Roberts, On the Support of the Tharsis Rise on Mars,
Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 214, 1-9, 2003.
Zhong, S.J., A. Paulson, and J. Wahr, Three-dimensional Finite Element
Modeling of Earth's Viscoelastic Deformation: Effects of
Lateral Variations in Lithospheric Thickness,
G.J.Int., Vol 155, 679-695, 2003.
van Hunen J., J. Huang, and S.J. Zhong, The effect of shearing on onset and vigor of small-scale convection with a Newtonian rheology,
GRL, Vol 30, No. 19, 1991, 10.1029/2003GL018101 2003.
Lowry, A. R., S.J. Zhong, Surface versus internal loading of the
Tharsis rise, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 5099, 10:1029/2003JE002111, 2003.
Huang, J., S.J. Zhong, and J. van Hunen, Controls on sub-lithospheric
small-scale convection, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 2405, doi:10.1029/2003JB002456,2003.
Zhong, S.J. and B. H. Hager, Entrainment of a dense layer by thermal
plumes, G.J.Int., 154, 666-676,
van Hunen, J., S.J. Zhong, New insight in the Hawaiian plume
swell dynamics from scaling laws, Geo. Res. Lett., Vol. 30, No. 15, 1785, doi:10.1029/2003GL017646, 2003.
Zhong, S.J., Effects of lithosphere on the long-wavelength gravity
anomalies and their implications for the formation of the
Tharsis rise on Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 5054, doi:10.1029/2001JE001589,
Zhong, S.J. and A. B. Watts, Constraints on the dynamics of mantle plumes from uplift of Hawaiian islands,
Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 203, 105-116, 2002
Parmentier, E. M., S. Zhong, and M. T. Zuber, Gravitational differentiation
due to initial chemical stratification: origin of lunar
asymmetry by the creep of dense KREEP, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 201, 473-480,
Zhong, S.J. and M. T. Zuber, Degree-1 mantle convection and Martian
crustal dichotomy, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 189, 75-84,
Zhong, S.J., Role of ocean-continent contrast and continental
keels on Plate motion, net rotation of lithosphere and the geoid,
J. Geophys. Res., 106, 703-712,
Zhong, S.J., and M. T. Zuber, Crustal compensation during mountain
building, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 27, p. 3009,
A. B. Watts, and S.J. Zhong, Observations of flexure and the
rheology of the oceanic lithosphere,
Geophys. J. Int., 142, 855-875,
Zuber, M.T. et al., Internal structure and early thermal evolution
of Mars from Mars Global Surveyor topography and gravity, Science,
Zhong, S.J., M. T. Zuber, L. Moresi, and M. Gurnis, Role
of temperature-dependent viscosity and surface plates in
spherical shell models of mantle convection,
J. Geophys. Res., 105, 11063-11082, 2000.
Moresi, L., M. Gurnis, and S.J. Zhong, Plate tectonics and convection
in the Earth's mantle: Toward a numerical simulation, Computing in
Sci. Eng., 2, no. 3, 22-33, 2000.
Gurnis, M, S.J. Zhong, and J. Toth, On the competing roles of fault
reactivation and brittle failure in generating plate tectonics from
mantle convection, in AGU monograph on The History and
Dynamics of Global Plate Motions, 2000.
Zhong, S.J., E. M. Parmentier, and M. T. Zuber, A dynamic origin
for the global asymmetry of lunar mare basalts,
Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 177, 131-140,
Gurnis, M, J. Ritsema, H. van Heijst, and S.J. Zhong, Tonga slab
deformation: The influence of a lower mantle upwelling on a slab
in a young subduction zone, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol 27, p 2373,
Zhong, S.J., and M. T. Zuber, Long-wavelength topographic relaxation
for self-gravitating planets and its implications to the compensation
of lunar basins, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 4153-4164,
Zhong, S.J. and G. F. Davies, Effects of plate and slab
viscosities on geoid, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 170, 487-496,
Van Keken, P., and S.J. Zhong, Mixing in a 3D spherical model of
present day mantle convection, Earth Planet.
Sci. Lett., 171, 533-547,
Zhong, S.J., M. Gurnis, and L. Moresi, The role of faults, nonlinear
rheology, and viscosity structure in generating plates from
instantaneous mantle flow models, J. Geophys. Res., 103,
Zhong, S.J., Dynamics of crustal compensation and its influences
on crustal isostasy, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 15287-15299,
Zhong, S.J., and M. Gurnis, Dynamic interaction between tectonic
plates, subducting slabs, and the mantle, Earth Interactions,
Zhong, S.J., and M. Gurnis, Incorporation of fault-bound plates in
three-dimensional models of mantle flow, Nature, 383, 245-247,
Zhong, S., Analytic solutions for mantle flow with lateral
variation sin viscosity, Geophys J. Int., 124, 18-28,
L. Moresi, S.J. Zhong, and M. Gurnis, The accuracy of finite element
solutions of Stokes' flow with strongly varying viscosity,
Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 97, 83-94,
Zhong, S.J., M. Gurnis, and L. Moresi, Free surface formulation of
mantle convection, part 1: basic theory and implication to plumes,
Geophys. J. Int., 127, 708-718
M. Gurnis, C. Eloy, and S.J. Zhong, Free surface formulation of mantle
convection, part 2: implication to subduction observables,
Geophys. J. Int., 127, 719-727, 1996
Zhong, S.J., and M. Gurnis, Mantle convection with plates and mobile,
faulted plate margins, Science, 267, 838-843,
Zhong, S.J., and M. Gurnis, Towards a realistic simulations of plate
margins, Geophys. Res. Lett, 22, 981-984,
Zhong, S.J., and M. Gurnis, The role of plates and
viscosity in phase change dynamics, J. Geophys. Res., 99,
Zhong, S.J., and M. Gurnis, Controls on trench topography from dynamic
models of subducted slabs, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 15683-15695,
Zhong, S.J., and M. Gurnis, Dynamic feedback between an
non-subducting raft and thermal convection, J. Geophys. Res.,
Zhong, S.J., M. Gurnis, and G. Hulbert, Accurate determination of
surfac enormal stress in viscous flow from a consistent boundary
flux method, Phys .Earth Planet. Inter., 78, 1-8, 1993.
Zhong, S.J. and M. Gurnis, Viscous flow model of a subduction zone
with a faulted lithosphere: long and short wavelength topography,
gravity and geoid, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 1891-1894, 1992
Zhong, S.J. and W. Xu, Numerical studies on temperature field of
Zhangzhou ogeothermal field and speculations on the origin of the
in Geophysical Studies on Fujian Geothermics, Chinese Science and
Technology Press, p196-215, 1992
Xu, W. and S.J. Zhong, Hydrothermal system of FuZhuo geothermal field
-- numerical model and its application, in Geophysical Studies on
Fujian Geothermics, Chinese Science and Technology Press,
Xu, W., S.J. Zhong, and W. Bai, A earthquake source model based on
curved propagation of faults, Chinese Geophysical J. , 35, 46-58,
Gurnis, M. and S.J. Zhong, Generation of long-wavelength wavelength
heterogeneity in the mantle by the dynamic interaction between
plates and convection,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 581-584, 1991